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The Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Association, International, (NORA) is a group of committed individuals from various disciplines whose focus is on advancing the art and science of rehabilitation for the neurologically challenged patient.


Vision Related Side Effects of Neurological Impairment


  • Eye Movement Disorders with fixation, tracking
  • Eye Focusing Problems
  • Double vision
  • Light sensitivity/Photophobia
  • Field Loss
  • Peripheral Loss/Hemianopsia (Loss of half of the field of view to the right or left
  • Quadranopsias ( Loss of about 1/4 sector of the visual field)
  • Reading Disorders
  • Eye teaming/eye coordination problems
  • Small changes in refractive errors more significant
  • Nystagmus/Irregular eye movements
  • Lagophthalmos/Incomplete blink
  • Dry Eye - Decreased Blink Rate
  • Visual Hallucinations/formed objects/stars, aura
  • Convergence Problems
  • Frequent Headaches
  • Visual Perceptual Disturbances/visual processing problems
  • Disturbances in body image
  • Disturbances of spatial relationships
  • Right - Left discrimination problems
  • Agnosia - difficulty in object recognition
  • Apraxia - difficulty in manipulation of objects
  • Visual Memory Loss -especially short term memory
  • Visual dysfunctions causing dizziness and balance problems

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